J1.12 Choking on a Tune

Annotations for Jerusalem by Alan Moore

Please note: All page and chapter numbers refer to the UK Hardcover edition, published by Knockabout Limited, 2016.

Book 1 – The Boroughs
Choking on a Tune

Editor’s note: each ‘block’ of conversational dialogue within the text will be treated as a single paragraph.

Dramatis Personae

Mick Warren

Alma Warren

Howard – Mick’s best friend at work

Cathy Warren – Mick’s wife

Clara – Mick’s maternal grandmother

Doreen Warren – Mick’s mother

Dr. Grey – the Warren family’s GP

Doug McGeary – the Warren’s next-door neighbour.

Jack Warren – Mick’s elder son.

Joe Warren – Mick’s younger son.

 

Page 325 – titled Choking on a Tune

Title – ‘Tunes’ are a brand of medicated cough sweet, sold in the UK

paragraph 1

  • “Magic marker” – Magic markers are a colloquialism (UK only?) for permanent marker pens, of which ‘Sharpie’ is probably the best-known type.

paragraph 2

  • “..for some reason…” – the reason being the actions of Bill, Marjorie and Michael in a later chapter

paragraph 3

  • “The relative in question” is almost certainly Alma.

paragraph 4

  • Harold Lloyd  – Harold Clayton Lloyd Sr., a star of silent movies (b. April 20, 1893; d. March 8, 1971). Along with Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton, one of the most influential film stars of his time.

PAGE SYNOPSIS: Mick Warren, working at the reclamation yard, hits an unmarked barrel with a sledgehammer, causing an eruption of caustic chemicals to spray his face. In his panicked reaction he hits his head on a piece of scaffolding, rendering himself unconscious.

Page 326

paragraph 1

  • “Something about a chimney…” – The Destructor.
  • “Coco pops” – Coco Pops are a chocolate breakfast cereal made by Kellogg’s, marketed in the USA as ‘Cocoa Krispies’
  • “…something about the route they’d taken had felt queasily familiar.” – Mick is remembering, at least unconsciously, his drive to hospital when he was 3 years old.

paragraph 2

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  • “…lighting up a fag..” – The term ‘fag’ is British slang for cigarette.

PAGE SYNOPSIS: Mick, upon awakening in a confused state, is driven to hospital by his friend, Howard, where he is treated and sent home to rest.

Page 327

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  • “Devon” –  Devon is a county in Southwest England, famed nationally for its beaches and coastal scenery. In summertime the weather is generally warmer and more congenial than the rest of the UK.

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Mick, at home, muses on his wife’s fastidiously tidy nature, which leads to a consideration of her family, the Devlins.

Page 328

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  • George Romero – George Andrew Romero, filmmaker (b. Feb. 4, 1940; d. Jul. 16, 2017). Best known for gruesome horror films featuring a zombie apocalypse.

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  • Mabel Lucy Atwell – Mabel Lucie Attwell, illustrator (b. Jun. 4, 1879; d. Nov. 5, 1964), known for her nostalgic images of children, based on her daughter, Peggy.

PAGE SYNOPSIS: Mick begins to feel a deep sense of unease as long-buried memories begin to resurface.

Page 329

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  • ‘…mysterious turquoise shavings…’ – The tanning of leather employs the chemical Chromium (III) Sulfate which renders the leather a distinctive bluish-purple colour.

PAGE SYNOPSIS: He realises that his memories upon awakening in hospital, post-accident, are actually those of his 3-year-old self and what he experienced after he choked on a cough sweet.

Page 330

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  • ‘Bachelerie di Northampton’ – Although the text here explicitly defines this as a student population there is some evidence that it has the more general meaning of a rebellious and fractious subsection of the local population. Possibly students, possibly journeymen (e.g. tradesmen of intermediate skill), possibly both.
  • ‘Simon De Montfort’ – Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (b. c. 1208; d. 4 Aug. 1265) . Led the rebellion against King Henry III (see below). Considered one of the heralds of modern parliamentary democracy.
  • ‘King Henry the Third’ – Henry III of England (b. 1 Oct. 1207; d. 16 Nov. 1272). Overthrown by Simon de Montfort. Captured at the Battle of Lewes. Freed by his son, Edward, following Montfort’s defeat and death at the Battle of Evesham.
  • ‘Magna Carta’ – The ‘Great Charter’ (English translation of ‘Magna Carta’), issued by King John in 1215, established for the first time that everyone, including the King, was subject to the law.
  • ‘Cluniac Order’ – The Cluniac Order was a French order of monks, established by William I of Aquitane in 910.
  • ‘Norman royal family’ – The House of Normandy was a French aristocratic family the head of which, William II, assumed the throne of England in 1066 following the Norman conquest.

PAGE SYNOPSIS: Mick, sitting in his living room, thinks about the Boroughs as he remembers it as a child, which leads to thoughts on its history in general.

Page 331

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  • ‘…old men at ten past 3 were still attempting to get home…’ – In the UK in the 1950’s, pubs were required by law to close for at least 2 hours in the early afternoon.

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: A description of Mick’s childhood home, St. Andrew’s Road, the Boroughs, as it was upon the day he choked in 1959.

Page 332

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  • “Neville Chamberlain” – Arthur Neville Chamberlain (b. 18 Mar. 1859; d. 9 Nov. 1940),  British Prime Minister (May 28th 1937 – May 10th 1940) best known for his policy of appeasement towards the mounting aggression of Nazi Germany.
  • “Hitler-appeasing” – Adolf Hitler (b. 20 Apr. 1889; d. 30 Apr. 1945), Chancellor of Germany (August 2nd 1934 – April 30th 1945), leader of the Nazi party and viewed by history as the main instigator of the conflict that is known in the West as the Second World War.

paragraph 3

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  • ‘Meat-safe’ – Also known as a pie safe, this was a piece of furniture designed to store perishable foodstuffs in the days before the use of ice-boxes became widespread, which in turn gave way to refrigerators.

PAGE SYNOPSIS: A continuation of the description of the Warren house on St. Andrew’s Road, c. 1959

Page 333

paragraph 1

  • ‘…treacherous mangle..’ – In the UK, a mangle is a domestic device whereby wet clothes are passed between two closely-set rollers (which are turned by means of a manually operated handle) in order to squeeze the moisture from them.
  • ‘…solidifying dripping…’ – Dripping is another name for the oily, fatty residue that is elicited from meat upon cooking in an open pan.

paragraph 2

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Description of the kitchen of the Warren house, which is revealed to be number 17, St. Andrew’s Road.

Page 334

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  • ‘…shredding suet,’ – Suet is the hard, white fat found around the loins of many livestock animals and is an ingredient in many older British recipes, although it has fallen into disfavour in recent times.

paragraph 3

  • ‘TV Century 21’ – TV Century 21 was a weekly British children’s comic published in the late 1960’s.

paragraph 4

PAGE SYNOPSIS: Mick continues to think about his childhood home and the mental ‘feel’ of nostalgia in general.

Page 335

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  • “Winter Mixture” – A ‘Winter mixture’ was (and, indeed, still is) a selection of boiled sweets of mixed flavours, traditionally thought to be warming, such as menthol, cloves or peppermint.

paragraph 6

PAGE SYNOPSIS: Doreen takes Michael to Dr. Grey to have his sore throat examined. The doctor prescribes cough sweets.

Page 336

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  • ‘Sodom and Gomorrah’ – Sodom and Gomorrah were two cities detailed in the Bible, as well as other monotheistic holy books. According to biblical sources, they were destroyed by angels at God’s command in punishment for their wickedness.
  • ‘Jehovah’ – Jehovah is an English rendering of the Hebrew name of God (YHWH).
  • ‘Cities on the Plain’ – More commonly referred to as the ‘Cities of the Plain’, these were a group of five cities (including Sodom and Gomorrah) referred to in the biblical Book of Genesis; the others, for the sake of completeness, were Admah, Zeboim and Bela.

paragraph 2

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  • ‘..which had lost a whole other dimension..’ – In addition to being a humourous way of expressing the fact that the ant in question has been squashed flat, this is also part of the recurring theme within the book of using Edwin Abbott’s seminal  book ‘Flatland’ as a way of extrapolating our limited spatial awareness to extra dimensions.

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  • ‘Wee Willie Winkie’ – ‘Wee Willie Winkie’ is a Scottish nursery rhyme written by William Miller and first published in 1841.

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Alma plays in the back garden while Michael sits on Doreen’s knee, upon the back step of the house on St. Andrew’s Road.

Page 337

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  • ‘Rupert’ – This refers to the comic strip character Rupert Bear, who appears in the British newspaper, The Daily Express, and has done so since 1920. An example of the “black and spiky imps” referred to in this passage can be seen in this image.

paragraph 2

  • ‘Airfix soldiers’ – Airfix is a UK manufacturer of moulded plastic figures and models, chiefly military in theme. The term ‘airfix’ has since passed into common usage as a generic name for this type of model, even when produced by a different company.
  • ‘British Tommies’ – A ‘Tommy’ is another name for a British soldier, typically infantry. It arises from the name ‘Tommy Atkins’ although the origins of this appellation are unclear and the subject of some dispute.
  • ‘Tit-bits’ – This was the more commonly-used name of the mass-circulation commercial publication “Tit-Bits from all the interesting Books, Periodicals, and Newspapers of the World”, which (as the title suggests) presented short snippets of news from a variety of sources in condensed, easy-to-read articles.
  • ‘Reveille’ – Reveille was a popular tabloid newspaper of the time. As an interesting side-note, Reveille merged with Tit-bits in 1979, before the latter finally ceased publication (after undergoing further transformations beyond the scope of this article) in 1989.

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  • ‘St. Vitus’ Dance’ – Now known as Sydenham’s chorea, St. Vitus’ Dance is a disorder in which the sufferer undergoes uncoordinated, rapid movements in the feet, hands and face.

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: A continuation from the previous page in which Mick (thinking back) remembers Alma’s nocturnal habits as relating to her visits to the back-garden lavatory.

Page 338

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Alma and Doreen engage in conversation.

Page 339

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  • ‘Sputniks’ – Sputnik was the first man-made object to be placed in a stable orbit around the Earth, on October 4 1957. It was Russian in origin.
  • ‘Lime cordial’ – This is a non-alcoholic drink made from concentrated lime juice, sugar and water.

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Alma and Doreen continue their conversation in which Alma tries (with some success) to confuse Doreen with a logical (but nonsensical) argument that ends with green cows.

Page 340

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Michael chokes on a Tune. Mick suddenly remembers choking.

Page 341

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: After several failed and increasingly desperate attempts to remove the blockage from Michael’s airway, he begins to lose consciousness.

Page 342

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  • ‘..old Victorian public toilets..’ – These are possibly the same ones mentioned in the chapter entitled “Rough Sleepers”, which are also referred to as ‘Georgie Bumble’s office’ [CHECK THIS]

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Michael is carried from the back garden, through the house, feeling his consciousness drifting away from him. He sees a small, beckoning figure up in the corner of the room.

Page 343

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Michael dies before reaching the lorry of the neighbour which is to take him to hospital. Michael is terrified by this realisation (and memories of what came after). At this point his wife Cathy and their two sons arrive home and see the damage to their father’s face.

Page 344

paragraph 1

paragraph 2

  • ‘…why wasn’t there a label on that drum?’ – See the note for P.338, paragraph 2.
  • ‘…Elephant Man..’ – Joseph Carey Merrick (b. 8 Aug. 1862; d. 11 Apr. 1890) was known as ‘The Elephant Man’ (and featured in freak shows under this name) due to his severe facial deformities caused by a condition known as Proteus syndrome.

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  • ‘…named his elder brother ‘Hoss’..’ – This is a reference to the TV show “Bonanza” in which two of the sons of the main character are named Hoss and Joe.
  • ‘Work Experience’ – Work Experience is a short period of time in which a still-at-school teenager spends in a workplace (usually of their choosing) in order to gain an insight into, and some experience of, a field of work that appeals to them.

paragraph 8

  • ‘Paul Abbot’ – Paul Abbott (b. 22 Feb. 1960 – ) is a British television  screenwriter and producer
  • ‘Shameless’ – Shameless was a British TV comedy-drama set in Manchester focusing on the lives of the working classes living on a fictional council housing estate.
  • ‘…terrestrial or Sky…’ – This refers to the two main providers of television service in the UK. Terrestrial being the public, free-to-receive, service requiring no special equipment. Sky is a satellite-broadcast service provided by the company Sky UK and is the largest subscription-based television service provider in the UK.

PAGE SYNOPSIS: Cathy calls Mick’s boss for an explanation regarding the circumstances of Mick’s accident, resulting in Mick receiving time off work. The family have dinner and settle down to watch TV.

Page 345

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  • ‘…like Bread..’ – “Bread” was a British situation comedy TV show from the 1980’s, set in a working class area of Liverpool, in which the central family were (unrealistically) portrayed as irrepressibly cheerful, happy-go-lucky scamps who never let their poverty get them down.
  • ‘…STD’s…’ – STD is the acronym for Sexually Transmitted Disease.
  • ‘…alcopops…’ – Alcopops is a common British term for sweet, fizzy alcoholic drinks of beer-range alcohol content, typically marketed towards people of a young (although still notionally of legal drinking) age.
  • ‘…sink estate…’ – The term ‘sink estate’ denotes an area (typically a council housing estate) of high economic and social deprivation.

paragraph 3

  • Are You Being Served?’ – “Are You Being Served?” was a British TV situation comedy from the 1970’s, set in a department store.
  • ‘…Dostoevsky.’ – Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (b. 11 Nov. 1821; d. 9 Feb. 1881) was a Russian novelist and philosopher.
  • ‘Mr. Humphries’ – Mr. Humphries – portrayed by the actor, John Inman – was a character on the show “Are You Being Served?” (see above). His character, though never openly stated, was assumed to be homosexual and portrayed as extremely effeminate.
  • ‘Mrs. Slocum’ – Mrs. Slocombe – portrayed by the actor, Mollie Sugden – was a character on the show “Are You Being Served?” (see above). Her character was renowned for talking about her cat, although always employing the doubly-entendred term ‘pussy’.
  • ‘None of us are truly free, dear Mrs. Slocum, unless it is in the act of murder’ – This line is a parody of the thesis (and paradox) at the heart of Dostoyevsky’s classic work of fiction, “Crime and Punishment”.

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Whilst watching ‘Shameless’, Mick recalls Alma’s views on TV shows of that kind and gradually becomes more uncomfortable as his post-death memories start to leak back into his mind.

Page 346

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  • ‘…National Health…’ – The National Health Service is the British free-to-access public health service. It is funded by general taxation (the source of around 80% of funding) and statutory ‘National Insurance’ payments that are automatically deducted from a person’s salary.

paragraph 3

  • ‘…Seroxat casualty,’ – Seroxat is an antidepressant medication of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) family.
  • ‘…Blake..’ – William Blake (b. 28 Nov. 1757; d. 12 Aug. 1827) was an English poet and painter. Largely unrecognised during his own lifetime he is now recognised as one of the most important figures in the Romantic movement.
  • ‘…and Parry’s..’ – Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (b. 27 Feb. 1848; d. 7 Oct. 1918), was an English composer, teacher and historian of music.
  • ‘Jerusalem’ – This was a poem written by William Blake in 1804 and set to music by Hubert Parry in 1916.

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Mick remembers being called up into the ceiling by a young girl wearing a blood-drenched fur scarf. He tries to banish the memories by focusing on the TV show.

Page 347

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  • ‘Tourette’s’ – Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder that involves repetitive movements or unwanted sounds that can’t be easily controlled.
  • ‘..satanic mills..’ – The phrase ‘satanic mills’ is a direct reference to William Blake’s poem, “Jerusalem”. See notes 2,3 &4 to paragraph 3, P. 359.

paragraph 2

  • ‘Destructor’ – This can refer to either the literal incinerator that was situated in the Boroughs in the first half of the 20th century or the higher-dimensional manifestation which is gradually eating away at the fabric of reality in the higher dimensions and which manifests in the lower dimensions by way of the erosion of social and societal cohesion.
  • ‘Bedlam Jennies’ – This is a species of (possibly psychotropic) plant life which is only visible to those who are no longer corporeal. The resemble a ring of figures, oriented as a flattened disc, arranged so they are conjoined at the head and shoulders with their bodies radiating outward from a central point. In their unripened form they are described as being hard, possessing a bitter flavour and the figures resembling in appearance spacemen. Their ripened form is described as being sweet and succulent, the figures resembling naked females.
  • ‘Porthimoth’ di Norhan’ ’ – See note for paragraph 2, page 10, Chapter J1.01 Work in Progress
  • ‘..crook doors..’ – Crook doors are the means by which one passes from the everyday world of three dimensions to the higher realities.
  • ‘Jacob Flight’ – A Jacob Flight is an extra-dimensional ‘ladder’, resembling a very steep and narrow stairway, by means of which one can access a crook door (see previous note). It seems to take its inspiration from the biblical tale of Jacob’s Ladder.
  • ‘Mansoul’ – Mansoul is a town in the novel “The Holy War Made by King Shaddai Upon Diabolus, to Regain the Metropolis of the World, Or, The Losing and Taking Again of the Town of Mansoul” by John Bunyan.
  • ‘…the Dead Dead Gang.’ – The Dead Dead Gang are the ghostly children with whom young Michael has his post-mortem adventures.
  • ‘Trilliards..’ – Trilliards is a game, closely resembling billiards, played by the Builders in which the “balls” and the trajectories of each shot taken are actually human lives passing through 4-dimensional spacetime.
  • ‘Builders’ – Builders are the immortal inhabitants of Mansoul, commonly thought of (by lower-dimensional beings) as angels.
  • ‘…five-and-twenty thousand nights.’ – Twenty-five thousand nights is described in the text (REFERENCE NEEDED) as the average human lifespan.
  • ‘Ghost-seam’ – The ghost seam is the level of reality, which overlays our everyday three-dimensional world, in which reside those individuals whose corporeal form has ended yet they have not passed upwards into the Attics of the Breath.
  • ‘Spacemen..’ – See the note, above, on ‘Bedlam Jennies’
  • ‘..saint…’ – This refers to Marla, who becomes Kaph.
  • ‘…twenty-fives..’ – This refers to the year 2025
  • ‘Angles..’ – Angles are synonymous with Builders.
  • ‘…bare girls dancing…’ – The ‘bare girls dancing’ are the two sisters who appear throughout the text and are revealed in the Chapter J2.08 Malignant, Refractory Spirits to be fire spirits (Salamanders)
  • ‘…Puck’s Hats…’ – “Puck’s Hat” is another name for Bedlam Jennies.

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: The song “Jerusalem” unlocks Mick’s memory and he remembers everything that happened to him after he died. In bed that night, he tells Cathy.

Page 348

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  • ‘..twilight zone..’ – “The Twilight Zone” was an American TV show, first broadcast in 1959, featuring stories from many genres but which almost always had a ‘twist’ of some sort.

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PAGE SYNOPSIS: Cathy advises Mick to talk over his memories with Alma, so he arranges to meet her for a drink.

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2 thoughts on “J1.12 Choking on a Tune”

  1. DATE = 2005

    • This is a few days before Ch1, which takes place on the following Saturday.

    P.O.V. CHARACTER = MICHAEL “MICK” WARREN

    • 49 years old (he was 3 when he choked on the cough drop in 1959).

    • He was the POV character for part of Ch1.

    • His mother is Doreen Warren (nee Swan) from Ch11, so his father must be Tommy Warren, POV from Ch11 (and his big sister, Alma Warren, must be the baby being born in Ch11). His paternal grandmother is May Warren (POV from Ch10) and his maternal grandmother is Clara Swan. His great grandfather is John “Snowy” Vernall (POV from Ch9), and his great great grandfather is Ernest “Ginger” Vernall (POV from Ch2).

    • His wife is Cathy, and they have two sons, Jack (who is a lot like Alma) and Joe (who is a lot like Mick).

    OBSERVATIONS AND QUESTIONS:

    • Page 343, par 2: The family house that Mick and Alma grew up was located at 17 St. Andrew’s Road, but by 2005 has been “replaced by a grass verge….”

    A recent interview with Moore includes a photo of him standing at this location:

    https://londonhollywood.wordpress.com/2016/09/22/if-you-read-only-one-alan-moore-jerusalem-interview-make-it-this-one/

    • Page 344, par 2: “This was in the twelve-hundreds, when the area called the Boroughs now was then Northampton, all there was of it.”

    So the Boroughs used to be the entirety of Northampton in the 1200s. Mick recalls that back then Northampton had a student population who rebelled against King Henry The Third. The king responded by sending his troops, who “sacked and burned the previously prosperous and pleasant town” and “decided that it would be Cambridge that became a seat of learning, rather than Northampton.”

    Mick sees this as the beginning of Northampton’s disenfranchisement, noting: “Refuse just once to eat the shit that you’ve been served up and the powers that be will make sure there’s a double helping steaming on your plate at every supper for the next eight hundred years.”

    • Page 349, par 3: The doctor’s judgmental and condescending attitude toward the Boroughs kids when Mick was growing up parallels the doctor’s attitude toward May Warren and her baby in Ch10.

    • Page 351, par 2: Mick and Alma shared a chamber pot growing up because they didn’t have indoor plumbing. Their great great grandfather Ernest “Ginger” Vernall also used a chamber pot at the beginning of Ch2.

    • Page 357, par 2: This is a great line as three-year-old Mick is choking and drifting away from reality. His sense of self is crumbling, and he starts to see himself as a third person protagonist:

    “The person in the tale that he liked best, the little boy, was dying in a funny little house upon a street that nobody would ever hear of. He remembered feeling slightly disappointed that the story hadn’t had a better ending, because up to then he’d been enjoying it.”

    FUNNY ALMA WARREN DESCRIPTIONS:

    • Page 351, par 4: Alma had “always been much, much too comfortable with the idea of spookiness. It was a quality, he thought, that she had actively aspired to. Nobody could end up like Mick’s

    • Page 352, par 2: “There’d come a point in any conversation between Alma and their mum in which Doreen would make a huge strategic blunder and would start to argue in the terms of Alma’s logic, whereupon she would immediately be lost.”

    Haha little kid Alma Warren already sprinkling spells into other people’s consciousnesses as a five-or-six year old!

    • Page 359, par 1: “Mick believed that in life there were times when the entirely inappropriate was the only appropriate response. Perhaps, though, it was only him and Alma who thought that way. Mostly Alma.”

    Like

  2. I’ll put my Dramatis Personae and Index lists here.
    NOTES:
    Page referrers are for 3 volume paperback edition by Knockabout.
    Dramatis personae-characters in brackets are only mentioned but not in scene.

    Dramatis Personae
    • Michael ›Mick‹ Warren: POV,
    • (Alma: Mick’s big sister)
    • Mick’s fellow employees at reconditioning yard
    • Howard: Mick’s best mate
    • Cathy: Mick’s wife
    • (Dawn: Cathy’s sister)
    • (Harriet: Dawn’s youngest daughter)
    • (Chris Devlin: Mick’s distant cousin)
    • (prison officer of Chris)
    • (Doreen: Mick’s mother, died 1995)
    • (man next door in St. Andrew’s Street = Dough McGeary, fruit & vegetable purveyor)
    • (Mrs. McGeary: Neighbor of Warrens in 1959)
    • (John: Mick’s cousin)
    • (Eileen: Mick’s cousin)
    • (William Mallard: Mick’s maternal great-grandfather)
    • (another man in 3rd portrait photograph in Warren house; maybe Uncle Cecil, maybe cousin Bernard)
    • (Clara Swan: Mick’s maternal grandmother)
    • (May Warren: Mick’s grandmother)
    • (Dr. Grey: family doctor of Warrens)
    • (little tiny girl in upper corner of living room of Warrens)
    • Jack: son of Mick and Cathy, aged 15 in 2005
    • ›Joe‹ = Joseph: son of Mick and Cathy, aged 11 in 2005
    • (Mick’s boss)
    • (Ernest Vernall)
    • (Audrey Vernall)

    Index
    • Tune, brand of lozenge manufactured by The Wrigley Company in the UK: title and whole chapter
    • Harold Lloyd (1893-1971), American actor, comedian, film director and stunt performer: 325
    • Coco Pops, brand name for breakfast cereal: 326
    • George Romero (*1940), American-Canadian filmmaker, best known for his series of gruesome and satirical horror films about an imagined zombie apocalypse: 328
    • ›Mabel Lucy Atwell‹ = Marie Lucie Attwell (1879-1964), British illustrator, known for her cute, nostalgic drawings of children: 328
    • Bachelerie di Northampton, ›Bachelerie‹ refers not only to students, but also to journeyman. See Quote: »There is other evidence of the existence of an aristocracy envied by their less well-todo fellow-townsmen. The only original return extant to the inquest of 1274–5 (fn. 147) is described as being made by the lesser folk of the town, (fn. 148) and it complains bitterly that the wealthier burgesses escape the burdens of citizenship. ‘Divers burgesses holding many and great rents in the town refuse to make common cause with the community in tallages and other things, with the result that a large number of craftsmen (menestralli) have left the town because they are too grievously tallaged.’ (fn. 149) Some of the exemptions from tallage to which the jurors refer are enrolled upon the Patent Roll. (fn. 150) They complain further that when poor townsmen are put on assizes and have to go to London and elsewhere on the business of the town, it is at their own charges, whilst the rich men, if they have to do business abroad on behalf of the town, have all their expenses allowed them and the poor have to pay for it. (fn. 151) This kind of complaint was arising from many towns in the 13th century, (fn. 152) notably from Oxford, (fn. 153) and it has recently been suggested that it forms part of the wave of anti-aristocratic feeling expressed in 1259 by the communitas bachelerie Angliae. (fn. 154) There is no record in Northampton of the proclaiming of a commune as at London in 1262–3 (fn. 155) or at Bury St. Edmunds in 1264, (fn. 156) but we are told that the bad example of the bachelarii of those towns infected others, (fn. 157) and it would seem that such a demonstration was apprehended by the drafters of the second custumal. The ruthless sacking of the town by the royalists in 1264 suggests that if the priory was for the King, the townsfolk, like the scholars, were for the barons, and the attribute of Northampton in the medieval list of towns preserved in the same manuscript with the custumal echoes the term associated with turbulent democracy—’Bachelerie de Norhampton.’ (fn. 158) Already in the 13th century it looks as if the town government was in the hands of an oligarchy, closed by custom, if not by ordinance.«, Source: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/northants/vol3/pp1-26#anchorn154 : 330
    • Simon De Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208-1265), French-English nobleman, leader of rebellion agant King Henry the Third during Second Barons’s War: 330
    • King Henry the Third (1207-1272) of House Plantagenet: 330
    • Magna Carta Libertatum, ›the Great Charter of the Liberties‹, peace treaty of 1215 between the unpopular King John of England and a group of rebel barons: 330
    • Cluniac order, belonging to Cluny Abby, a Benedictine monastery founded in 910 in southern France: 330
    • Prespex windows, trademark for acrylic resins used mainly as a substitute for glass: 331
    • Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940), British conservative politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom: 332
    • Hitler = Adolf Hitler (1889-1845), German politician, leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933-1945; as ›Führer‹ of Nazi Germany initiator of World War II: 332
    • Reckitt’s Blue, brand of blue duye for textiles: 333
    • Century 21, British independent film production company, founded as AP Films in 1957, renamed Century 21 in 1965. Most famous for electronic marionette show Thunderbirds: 334
    • Captain Scarlet, title character of Century 21 TV show Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons (1967-1968): 334
    • Sodom and Gomorrah, Genesis, Old Testament, Bible; cities of sin (sodomy and homosexuality) destroyed by fire and brimstone due to divine judgement: 336
    • Jehovah, vocalization of YHWH, proper name of the God of Israel in Hebrew Bible: 336
    • Cities on the Plain, Genesis, Old Testament, Bible; five cities (Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim and Bela) situated on the Jordan River plain north of the Dead Sea: 336
    • Wee Willy Winkie, titular figure in Scottish nursery rhyme (1841) written by William Miller: 336
    • Frankenstein, referring to monster creature made of corpses by Dr. Frankenstein in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein; or The Modern Prometheus (1818): 337
    • Rupert = Rupert Bear, English cartoon character by Mary Tourtel, published in The Daily Express: 337
    • Airfix models, UK manufacturer of plastic scale models founded in 1939: 337
    • French Foreign Legion (Légion Étrangère), military service branch of the Franch Army established in 1831, unique because it was created for foreign nationals willing to serve in the French Armed Forces: 337
    • Civil War Confederates = Confederate States of America; secessionist American states from 1861-1865 during the American Civil War: 337
    Tit-Bits = Tit-Bits from all the interesting Books, Periodicals, and Newspapers of the World; British weekly magazine (1881-1989): 337
    Reveille, British weekly tabloid newspaper (1940-1979): 337
    • St. Vitus’ Dance, historic referrer to Sydenham’s chorea, a disorder characterized by rapid, uncoordinated jerking movements: 337
    • Sputniks = Sputnik, first artificial Earth satellite launched by the Soviet Union in 1957: 339
    • Elephant Man = Joseph Merrick (1862-1890), English man with severe deformations who was first exhibited at a freak show as the ›Elephant Man‹: 344
    • Paul Abbot = Paul Abbott (*1960), English television screenwriter and producer: 344
    Shameless (UK), Channel 4 adult comedy-drama series (2003-2013) set in Manchester, chronicles the life of the Gallagher family and their neighbors: 344-347
    Bread, BBC sitcom (1986-1991): 345
    • STD, acronym for Sexually transmitted diseases: 345
    You Are Being Served, BBC sitcom (1972-1985): 345
    • Dostoevsky = Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881), Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher: 345
    • National Health, founded in 1948: 346
    Jerusalem = ›And did those feet in ancient time‹, poem (1808) by Wiliam Blake Blake. Best known in athem version as Jerusalem, music written by Sir Hubert Parry in 1916: 346
    • Tourette’s = Tourette syndrom, common neuropsychiatric disorder, characterized by multiple involuntary motor and vocal tics; named after French physician Georges Gilles de la Tourette: 347

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